Find out more about this unique algae that occurs naturally in Klamath Lake, Oregon (USA), where it is carefully harvested and processed.
Like any other natural product, the Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is subject to the usual variations in nutritional content. For this reason, we can not make any binding information for the respective amounts.
The AFA-algae has an abundance of ingredients that can be easily absorbed by the human body and used optimally. These include various vitamins, proteins, and more than forty different minerals, which were previously analyzed in AFA algae:
Chlorophyll is the pigment that gives plants and algae their green color. Plants use chlorophyll to trap light needed for photosynthesis. The basic structure of chlorophyll is a porphyrin ring similar to that of heme in hemoglobin, although the central atom in chlorophyll is magnesium instead of iron. The long hydrocarbon (phytol) tail attached to the porphyrin ring makes chlorophyll fat-soluble and insoluble in water.
Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, along with allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin. It is an accessory pigment to chlorophyll. All phycobiliproteins are water-soluble, so cannot exist within the membrane as do carotenoids, but aggregate to form clusters that adhere to the membrane called phycobilisomes. Phycocyanin is a characteristic light blue color, absorbing orange and red light, particularly near 620 nm (depending on which specific type it is), and emits fluorescence at about 650 nm (also depending on which type it is).
Carotenoids are a class of more than 600 naturally occurring pigments synthesized by plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. These richly colored molecules are the sources of the yellow, orange, and red colors of many plants. Fruits and vegetables provide most of the carotenoids in the human diet. Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin are the most common dietary carotenoids. Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin are provitamin A carotenoids, meaning they can be converted by the body to retinol.
Is a carotenoid pigment found in nature. It is used to reduce sensitivity to sunlight in those who have the genetic disorder or for those who take medication that increases sensitivity. It cannot be converted to vitamin A but it is still being researched and is thought to have many of the same properties as other carotenoids.
Fatty acid (n-3)
Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), meaning they contain more than one cis double bond. In all omega-3 fatty acids, the first double bond is located between the third and fourth carbon atom counting from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-3). Similarly, the first double bond in all omega-6 fatty acids is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-6). Scientific abbreviations for fatty acids tell the reader something about their chemical structure.
Amino Acids (AA)/ Protein
AA are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 different AA that arrange in different patterns to form various proteins. Proteins are essential to the body and they are crucial to all cell function. They have many roles including, acting as an enzyme, cell signaling, structure, hormones, transport, storage and antibodies.
PEA is a derivative of the amino acid phenylalanine. Studies suggest that PEA regulates neurons and transmits signals between neurons in the central nervous system. It is currently being marketed as a supplement to help people enhance mood, focus and reduce stress.
Vitamin B12 has the largest and most complex chemical structure of all the vitamins. It is unique among vitamins in that it contains a metal ion, cobalt. For this reason cobalamin is the term used to refer to compounds having vitamin B12 activity. Methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin are the forms of vitamin B12 used in the human body. The form of cobalamin used in most supplements, cyanocobalamin, is readily converted to 5-deoxyadenosyl and methylcobalamin in the body. In mammals, cobalamin is a cofactor for only two enzymes, methionine synthase and L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase.
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. The "K" is derived from the German word "koagulation." Coagulation refers to the process of blood clot formation. Vitamin K is essential for the functioning of several proteins involved in blood clotting. There are two naturally occurring forms of vitamin K, vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K1, also known as phylloquinone, is synthesized by plants and is the predominant form in the diet. Vitamin K2 comes from animal sources and synthesis by intestinal bacteria. Vitamin K2 includes a range of vitamin K forms, collectively referred to as menaquinones, with repeating 5-carbon units in the side chain of the molecule. These forms of vitamin K are designated menaquinone-n (MK-n), where n stands for the number of 5-carbon units.
Nucleic acids are essential to life and include Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA). Their main functions are encoding, transmitting and expressing genetic information. DNA is the genetic "makeup" of all living things, and makes up our genes that determine each living organisms unique characteristics. There are several types of RNA and they work on converting the genetic information into proteins.
Calcium is the most common mineral in the human body. About 99% of the calcium in the body is found in bones and teeth, while the other 1% is found in the blood and soft tissue. Calcium levels in the blood and fluid surrounding the cells (extracellular fluid) must be maintained within a very narrow concentration range for normal physiological functioning. The physiological functions of calcium are so vital to survival that the body will demineralize bone to maintain normal blood calcium levels when calcium intake is inadequate. Thus, adequate dietary calcium is a critical factor in maintaining a healthy skeleton.
Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances in the body. It is an important part of the salt found in many foods and used in cooking. Chloride is needed to keep the proper balance of body fluids. It is an essential part of digestive (stomach) juices. Chloride is found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in many vegetables. Foods with higher amounts of chloride include seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives.
Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for humans and animals. In the body, copper shifts between the cuprous (Cu1+) and cupric (Cu2+) forms, though the majority of the body's copper is in the Cu2+ form. The ability of copper to easily accept and donate electrons explains its important role in oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions and in scavenging free radicals. Although Hippocrates is said to have prescribed copper compounds to treat diseases as early as 400 B.C., scientists are still uncovering new information regarding the functions of copper in the human body.
Iron has the longest and best described history among all the micronutrients. It is a key element in the metabolism of almost all living organisms. In humans, iron is an essential component of hundreds of proteins and enzymes.
Magnesium plays important roles in the structure and the function of the human body. The adult human body contains about 25 grams of magnesium. Over 60% of all the magnesium in the body is found in the skeleton, about 27% is found in muscle, 6% to 7% is found in other cells, and less than 1% is found outside of cells.
Manganese is a mineral element that is both nutritionally essential and potentially toxic. The derivation of its name from the Greek word for magic remains appropriate, because scientists are still working to understand the diverse effects of manganese deficiency and manganese toxicity in living organisms.
Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal function. The majority of the phosphorus in the body is found as phosphate (PO4). Approximately 85% of the body's phosphorus is found in bone.
Potassium ions are vital for the functioning of all living cells. The transfer of potassium ions through nerve cell membranes is necessary for normal nerve transmission; potassium deficiency and excess can each result in numerous signs and symptoms, including an abnormal heart rhythm and various electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities. Fresh fruits and vegetables are good dietary sources of potassium. The body responds to the influx of dietary potassium, which raises serum potassium levels, with a shift of potassium from outside to inside cells and an increase in potassium excretion by the kidneys.
Salt (sodium chloride) is essential for life. The tight regulation of the body's sodium and chloride concentrations is so important that multiple mechanisms work in concert to control them. Although scientists agree that a minimal amount of salt is required for survival, the health implications of excess salt intake represent an area of continued investigation among scientists, clinicians, and public health experts.
Zinc is an essential trace element for all forms of life. The significance of zinc in human nutrition and public health was recognized relatively recently. Clinical zinc deficiency in humans was first described in 1961, when the consumption of diets with low zinc bioavailability due to high phytic acid content (see Food sources) was associated with "adolescent nutritional dwarfism" in the Middle East. Since then, zinc insufficiency has been recognized by a number of experts as an important public health issue, especially in developing countries.