Various Published AFA Studies
NOTE: These are just a few of the many scientific studies on Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae which is also known as Blue Green Algae and Chlorophyll. These studies DO NOT reflect the results of any one product, or product line(s) shown to contain Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae, Blue Green Algae and Chlorophyll.
*Phenylethylamine (PEA) is known as the "molecule of love."
Besides enhancing concentration and attention, PEA is a natural mood elevator and anti-depressant. *Phycocyanin, is the blue pigment in AFA,which is a natural selective COX-2 inhibitor with strong anti-inflammatory properties. *AFA contains a polysaccharide that stimulates the migration of immune cells in the body; the only natural compound known to stimulate immune cell migration. But the most extraordinary discovery is the ability of AFA to stimulate stem cell release and migration, making AFA the first natural compound known to stimulate the natural innate phenomenon of healing, regeneration and repair in the human body.
In a recent double-blind, cross-over study at the Royal Victoria Hospital and led by Dr. Gitte Jenson, they discovered that Blue Green Algae uniquely supports the healthy function of the immune system.
Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
"Studies performed in healthy humans suggest that AFA-algae increase the level of circulating natural killer cells. In-vitro studies also suggest that AFA-algae have antiviral and antimutagenic activity."
Royal Victoria Hospital
Recently the first stage of an extensive research project carried out at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Canada produced some remarkable results. The project studies the effect of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on the immune and endocrine systems, as well as on general blood physiology. It was discovered that eating AFA had a profound and unique effect on Natural Killer (NK) cells. The results were recently published under the title: Effects of the Blue Green Algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on Human Natural Killer Cells. It appears in Chapter 3.1 of the IBC Library Series, Volume 1911, Phytoceuticals: Examining the health benefit and pharmaceutical properties of natural antioxidants and phytochemicals.
NK cells have the ability to search for and recognize cells that are cancerous or have been infected by a virus, and kill them. The team of research scientists at the Royal Victoria Hospital, led by Dr. Gitte S. Jensen, discovered that eating Aphanizomenon flos-aquae triggers the movement of 40% of the circulating K cells from the blood to the tissues where their main function is to perform immune surveillance and eliminate cancerous and virally-infected cells. Further research may prove that eating a small amount of AFA every day could assist in the prevention of cancer and viral infections. No other substance is known to trigger such a movement of NK cells in the body.
Effect of dietary chlorophyll derivatives on mutagenesis and tumor cell growth: Chernomorsky S, Segelman A, Poretz RD. (1999). Teratog Carcinog Mutagen.19(5):313-22
Much attention in recent years has been given to the antigenotoxicity of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll, however, is known to be converted into pheophytin, pyropheophytin, and pheophorbide in processed vegetable food and following ingestion by humans.
Studies were conducted on the antimutagenic and tumoricidal potencies of these compounds. All the chlorophyll derivatives tested exhibit identical antimutagenic effect towards 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), suggesting that the porphyrin nucleus may complex directly with the mutagen.
It does not exclude, however, another mechanism of activity involving inactivation the enzymatic transformation of 3-MC. In contrast, the action of N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) depends upon structural differences between the chlorophyll derivatives. It is significantly lower when the phytol-containing pheophytin and pyropheophytin are tested as to that of the phytol-lacking pheophorbide.
The higher concentrations of the chlorophyll derivatives were required to reduce the mutagenicity of MNNG than needed for 3-MC. The cytotoxicity of chlorophyll derivatives against tumor cells, also, was evaluated. The cellular uptake and inhibition of myeloma cell multiplicity were found to be greater for pheophorbide than for pheophytin. Calculated on the amount of cell associated chlorophyll derivative, however, pheophytin was more cytostatic/cytotoxic than pheophorbide.
The results presented in this report indicate that food sources that yield chlorophyll derivatives may play a significant role in cancer prevention.
Inhibition of reverse transcriptase activity by extracts of cultured blue-green algae (cyanophyta). Lau AF, Siedlecki J, Anleitner J, Patterson GM, Caplan FR, Moore RE. Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu 96813.
Lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts of over 900 strains of cultured blue- green algae (cyanophyta) were examined in vitro for their ability to inhibit the reverse transcriptases (RT) of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) and human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1). Eighteen (2.0%) aqueous extracts showed activity against AMV and HIV RTs. The maximal level of RT inhibition achieved by some of the active extracts was equivalent to that measured for 3'-azido-2', 3’-di-deoxythymidine (AZT) at 668 ng/ml. Examination of partially purified fractions prepared by C18 column chromatography demonstrated that the RT inhibition observed could not be attributed entirely to the degradation of transcript DNA, template RNA, or enzyme protein in the reaction mixture. Thus, these results indicate that cultured blue-green algae may represent a novel source of compounds that inhibit RT activity, including that of HIV-1.
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green algae: Romay C, Armesto J, Remirez D, Gonzalez R, Ledon 4, Garcia I Pharmacology Department, 4ational Center for Scientific Research, C4IC, Havana, Cuba. email@example.com
Objective: Phycocyanin is a pigment found in blue-green algae which contains open chain tetrapyrroles with possible scavenging properties. We have studied its antioxidant properties.
Materials and Methods: Phycocyanin was evaluated as a putative antioxidant in vitro by using: a) luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL) generated by three different radical species (O2-, OH., RO.) and by zymosan activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), b) deoxyribose assay and c) inhibition of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by Feascorbic acid. The antioxidant activity was also assayed in vivo in glucose oxidase (GO)-induced inflammation in mouse paw.
Results: The results indicated that phycocyanin is able to scavenge OH. (IC50 = 0.91 mg/mL) and RO. (IC50 = 76 microg/mL) radicals, with activity equivalent to 0.125 mg/mL of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and 0.038 microg/mL of trolox, specific scavengers of those radicals respectively. In the deoxyribose assay the second-order rate constant was 3.56 x 10(11) M(-1) S(-1), similar to that obtained for some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Phycocyanin also inhibits liver microsomal lipid peroxidation (IC50 =12 mg/mL), the CL response of PMNLs (p < 0.05) as well as the edema index in GO-induced inflammation in mouse paw (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of c-phycocyanin.
Inflamm Res 1998 Jan;47(1):36-41
AIDS-antiviral sulfolipids from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Gustafson KR, Cardellina JH 2nd, Fuller RW, Weislow OS, Kiser RF, Snader KM, Patterson GM, Boyd MR. Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.
A recently developed tetrazolium-based microculture assay was used to screen extracts of cultured cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) for inhibition of the cytopathic effects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), which is implicated as a causative agent of AIDS. A number of extracts were found to be remarkably active against the AIDS virus. A new class of HIV-1-inhibitory compounds, the sulfonic acid-containing glycolipids, was discovered through the use of the microculture assay to guide the fractionation and purification process. The pure compounds were active against HIV-1 in cultured human lymphoblastoid CEM, MT-2, LDV-7, and C3-44 cell lines in the tetrazolium assay as well as in p24 viral protein and syncytium formation assays.
University of new Mexico - placebo controlled study.
After eating Aphanizomenon flos-aquae for a period of one month, intestinal function can improve. Another placebo-controlled study suggests that eating Aphanizomenon flos-aquae can stimulate specific areas of the brain for increased mental alertness.
Consumption of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Has Rapid Effects on the Circulation and Function of Immune Cells in Humans
A novel approach to nutritional mobilization of the immune system Gitte S. Jensen, 1 Donald 1. Ginsberg, 1 Patricia Huerta, 1 Monica Citton, 1 and Christian Drapeau 2, 3 1 Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal Quebec 2Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, or 3 Current Address: Desert Lake Technologies, Klamath Falls, OR Objective: To examine the short-term effects of consumption of a moderate amount (1.5 grams) of the blue green algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA), on the immune system.
Methods: Using a crossover placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded design, 21 volunteers were studied, including 5 long-term AFA consumers.
Results: The consumption of a moderate amount (1.5 grams) of the blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae results in rapid changes in immune cell trafficking. Two hours after AFA consumption, a generalized mobilization of lymphocytes and monocytes, but not polymorph nucleated cells was observed. This included increases in CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell subsets and CD19+ B cells. In addition, the relative proportions and absolute numbers of natural killer (NK) cells were reduced after AFA consumption. No changes were observed in the relative proportions of n6ve versus memory T cells, neither in the CD4 or the CD8 fractions. A mild, but significant reduction in phagocytic activity was observed for polymorph nucleated cells. When freshly purified lymphocytes were exposed to AFA extract in vitro, direct activation was not induced, as evaluated by tyrosine phosphorylation and proliferative activity.
Discussion: The changes in immune cell trafficking displayed high degree of cell specificity. Long-term consumers responded stronger, with respect to altered immune cell trafficking. In vitro, AFA did not induce a direct activation of lymphocytes. These data support a signaling pathway from gut-to-CNS-to-lymphoid tissue. The signals from CNS may be crucial for the rapid changes in the general distribution and specific recruitment we observed. Moderate anti-inflammatory modulation may account for the modification of phagocytic activity.
Conclusion: Consumption of AFA leads to rapid changes in immune cell trafficking, but not direct activation of lymphocytes. Thus, AFA increases the immune surveillance without directly stimulating the immune system.
JA4A, vol. 2, 4o. 3, 2000, pp. 50-58
NOTE: These statements have not been evaluated by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration. The information contained in this website, are not intended to treat, cure or prevent any disease. Results may vary.